The Republic of Sudan is one of the largest countries in Africa with Khartoum as its capital city. It borders the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Egypt to the north, Eritrea to the northeast, Ethiopia to the southeast, Libya to the northwest, South Sudan to the south and the Red Sea.
It covers a total area of total 1,861,484 sq km with part being land of 1,731,671 sq km and the rest being water of 129,813 sq km.
The place is characterized by a hot and dry; arid desert; the rainy season varies by region (April to November). The land terrain is generally flat, featureless plain; the desert dominates the north. There are a number of ethnic groups ranging from Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Ingessana, Uduk, Fallata, Masalit, Dajo, Gimir, Tunjur, Berti; there are over 500 ethnic groups. The population is 49,197,555 million people.
Sudan is one of the world’s major agricultural exporters. It also shared oil pipeline exports with South Sudan. The country has industries that process oil, cotton ginning, textiles, and cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly and milling. Some of the natural resources available in the country are petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold and hydropower.
Additionally, the country exports gold, crude petroleum, sesame seeds, sheep, goats, cotton and ground nuts. The Sudan Pounds is used as the local currency in the country.
The Executive: the Republic of Sudan The Sovereign Council Chair and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces is the current head of state as well as the head of government. The Sovereign Council currently consists of 5 military-appointed civilians, 5 generals, and 3 representatives selected by former armed opposition groups.
The Legislature: according to the August 2019 Constitutional Declaration, which established Sudan’s transitional government, the Transitional Legislative Council (TLC) was to have served as the national legislature during the transitional period until elections could be held; as of March 2022, the TLC had not been established.
The Judiciary: The highest court(s) are the National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note – the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary and has not been appointed since the signature of the 2019 Constitutional Declaration. The subordinate courts include the Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts.
The judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges selected by the Supreme Judicial Council, which replaced the National Judicial Service Commission upon enactment of the 2019 Constitutional Declaration.
Safety and Security
The north-south civil war has affected Sudan’s neighbors by drawing them into the fighting and by forcing them to provide shelter to refugees, contend with infiltration by rebel groups, and serve as mediators.
Kenya’s administrative boundary still extends into Sudan, creating the “Ilemi Triangle”; Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence.
Refugees and internally displaced persons have flocked into the Sudan for instance refugees from Eritrea has 108,251, Chad 5,023 while Uganda has 7,983. The IDPs from the country have approximately 4.367 million people from internal conflicts in Sudan, especially in the Darfur Region.
Membership of Regional Blocs
The Republic of Sudan belongs to a number of regional and international blocs namely: the UN, AU, RECSA, SADC and COMESA.